Rome is about an hour away,with thompsons we used their bus,quite reasonably price,then we walked around rome at our leisure.when we got to pisa we used the train,cheap but on time,clean and 15 minutes from the tower.
This question has been asked many times- if you type civitavecchia into the search box you will find your answers. Basically it is an easy €9 train ride into Roma Termini.
In Naples a 10-15min walk to the train station gives you access to trains to both Pompeii and Herculaneum. Cheap and easy!
In Cadiz a good way of seeing the town is to jump on a tour bus. The stop is directly opposite the ships berth and you can hop on and off to your hearts content.
Yes very easy .the train station is about 10-15 mis walk from port entrance (port lays on a bus from the ship to port entrance -shuttle bus ) you can purchase a combined ticket for the train and the "hop on hop off bus " for 22 euro .......the bus is right outside the station in Rome Termini Station (last stop )it takes about 1hr 20min on train ..as i recall they were charging 155us dollars on board for a bus to Rome and leave you in centre for 3hrs ...you can do the same at a fraction of the tour cost