If you go to the "Find a Question" section above and put in Rome or Florence there as "Keywords" you should find a host of answers about this. Rome is particularly easy by train and cheap but you may find the "shuttle " run to Florence an easier bet if you are uncertain of "foreign travel amonst the natives". ... Regards .....Neil.
We did the Rome trip by Train with no problems but we were advised not to leave it to late to start the journey back to the ship as in the afternoon there may be up to 1 million inhabitants of Rome making there way home from work on the trains. If I remember correctly the journey to Florence was about 2hrs so we decided on Pisa instead.
For Rome it costs about 8 euros and is about an hours journey - if you ship arrives at 7am you can be in Rome by 0930-10.00 and there is at least two trains per hour back so you could easily have 4 or five hours there if your ship departs at gone 6pm
Fro florence the hardest bit is getting from the dock to the station, but once there you have about two trains per hour and it takes just over an hour, cost about 12 euros' - you can easily do Florance and Pisa is a day depending how long you are in port for.
hope this helps
Last year we went with p and o to the med we did our trip s independently.we didnt go to Florence but we went to Rome on the train from the dock i wont be able to spell the place where we docked all i remember you came up to the top of the road turned left a decent walk up to the station which is on the right i think was approx £14 return be careful which train u get on if you get on the express one the ticket collecter will be on that and you will have to pay extra the dock name began with a C hope this may help wendy caley.
From Civitaveccia you get the ship shuttle to the port gate (usually free) You will see a tourist information office just by the gates but if you are very early it may not be open. There may be a map on display in the window. If it is open they will give you a map for free. The station is to your right straight along the promenade. It will take about 10 minutes without hurrying. Get a day return which will also be valid on the metro. Tickets are approx 9 euros. Don't forget to validate them in the yellow machine on the platform. Train takes about 1 and a half hours. You get off either at San Pietro for the Vatican or Termini for the centre. There will be lots of hop on hop off buses or plenty of taxis. The queue for the Vatican is usually horrendous so if you wish to visit try to book online if possible. We did the hoho bus and this gives a good taster of the city.
For Florence you will have to catch the shuttle bus to the station or take a taxi as you are not allowed to walk through Livorno port. The taxis charge about 20 euros to the station as opposed to 5 euros pp each way on the shuttle bus. Taxi is cheaper if you are 4 or more. Be careful as the driver will agree to take you to the station but then will give you the hard sell to let him take you to Florence or Pisa instead. The train was either 14 euros each or for two people. I can't remember for sure. When you get to Florence station you are almost in the middle of town. It is a short walk to the Uffizi (busy in summer,walk right in in Nov)the Duomo and the Baptistry.